Formation of calculi (urolith) within the urinary tract resulting in obstruction of urine excretion.
- The primary cause of urinary calculi is feeding concentrate diets which are excessive in phosphorus and magnesium and/or have an imbalance of calcium and phosphorus.
- Blood in the urine
- Straining to urinate
- Decreased urine production
- Painful urination
- Vocalization during urination
- Prolonged urination
- Dribbling urine/ abdominal hair around prepuce remains wet
- Tail flagging
- Abdominal pain (stretching out all four limbs, kicking at the abdomen, looking at the side)
- Loss of appetite
- Lethargy (apparent depression)
- Abdominal swelling (from a ruptured bladder)
Ruminant urolithiasis is considered primarily a nutritional disease. The prevalence of urolithiasis in the USA is highest in calves, lambs, and kids castrated at an early age and fed high-grain diets with roughly a 1:1 calcium:phosphorus ratio or a diet high in magnesium. Ruminants fed high-grain diets with a low calcium:phosphorus ratio are at increased risk of developing struvite uroliths
- Urinary acidifiers
- Urinary catheter
- Urethral process amputation
- Perineal Urethrostomy
- Tube Cystostomy
- Prepubic Cystostomy
- Urethral Translocation
- Concentrate (grain) diets are excessive in phosphorus and magnesium.
- The availability and palatability of the water supply.
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